Porkuni Bishops Castle
Bishop of Tallinn, Simon von der Borch built his main stronghold in 1479 to Küngassaare – the highest place in Porkuni. The place was named Borkholm after its founder. Later the name was accommodated to Porkuni. The location itself offered effective defense against the enemy. We may speculate that there could have been an ancient Estonian stronghold before the castle was built, but there is no sure evidence.
It has been assumed, that first of all a small tower fortification was built on the island which was later surrounded by a rectangular castell (an enclosing wall) with the side length of 100 m. In the corners of the castell there were rotund cannon towers and in the middle of the South-Eastern wall there was a barbican tower, presently the limestone museum. Buildings were situated along the stronghold walls, in the middle there was a small church (previously the fortification tower?).
The stronghold was destroyed in the Livonian War (1558-1583) and it was never restored again. Nowadays only the barbican tower is extant. The barbican was in ruins until the 1st half of the 19th century, until it was restored by the local landlord.
The surrounding lake has been dredged and impounded repeatedly.